RSV is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in neonates and young infants. The risk of severe outcome is highest in the first months of life, but RSV causes significant morbidity throughout childhood. RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children younger than 2 years of age in the United States and the EU, including the UK. In addition, a significant disease burden lies in low- and middle-income countries. In the EU, there is now a surveillance system tracking cases along with influenza.
Despite significant efforts there is still no commercial vaccine against the disease. Several treatments, including a monoclonal antibody, are licensed for use in some age groups and used in richer countries.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. Anyone can get sick with COVID-19 and become seriously ill or die at any age. In excess of 5 million people have died worldwide with the USA and EU having the largest death tolls.
Since the outbreak of the pandemic in 2019, there has been intense focus on developing vaccines and treatments for Covid-19. To date, there has been success with several new vaccine technologies, including mRNA and viral vectors, and these have been deployed worldwide to varying degrees. The current vaccines have been shown to decrease the severity of symptoms however none have demonstrated a reduction in disease transmission.
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease that causes fever and severe joint pain. It is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. The name “chikungunya” derives from a word meaning “to become contorted”, and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia). Chikungunya is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. The disease occurs primarily in Africa and Asia, although imported cases have been recorded in the EU and the USA. Over 2 million cases have been reported since 2005.
There is no specific antiviral drug treatment for chikungunya and there is currently no commercial chikungunya vaccine.
Information on disease overview and symptoms; acknowledgement WHO website